Diese Klasse von Arzneimitteln umfasst synthetische Derivate von Testosteron - das wichtigste männliche Sexualhormon, das hat androgenic and anabolic effects. The androgene Eigenschaften von Testosteron im männlichen Körper bestimmen die Entwicklung sekundärer sexueller Merkmale: Haare am Körper und Gesicht, leise Stimme, Entwicklung und Erektion der Geschlechtsorgane, sexuell behavior, as well as aggressiveness. A manifestation of the anabolic qualities of testosterone is the acceleration of muscle growth.
For quite some time, doctors tried to use natural testosterone to treat diseases that cause weight loss. Unfortunately, testosterone in its natural form has a half-life in the body of only about ten minutes. This means that half the dose of testosterone is excreted 10 minutes after it was injected there. After that, every 10 minutes, half the remaining amount is displayed. An hour later, nothing remains of the initial quantity. Injection of natural testosterone into the muscle can stretch the time of complete decay to 10 hours and this is not enough to produce any effect. Chemists have been working on natural testosterone in order to create a drug that works like testosterone but lives in the body long enough to produce some kind of effect. As a result, testosterone derivatives such as 17-alpha-alkylate, 17-beta-ester and 1-methyl were obtained. All anabolic-androgenic steroids currently in use are variations of one of these three derivatives of the testosterone molecule. 17-alpha-alkylates and 1-methyl are taken orally, and 17-beta-esters are given as an injection.
Was ist die Basis für anabole Steroide?
The created preparations differ from the initial substance – testosterone – either by lowered androgenic function, or by even higher androgenicity and lowered anabolic activity, or by increased efficiency in relation to both qualities. This explains the difference in the action, effectiveness and side effects of existing AAS.
For a time, it was believed that anabolic and androgenic steroids are two different things, and therefore, it is allegedly possible to develop new types of steroids that will simply increase muscle mass without androgenic side effects. However, it turned out that the anabolic and androgenic effects are caused by the same drugs, but in different tissues. Thus, any steroids that increase muscle mass, and carry an androgenic effect.
Nevertheless, there is a division into predominantly anabolic and predominantly androgenic steroids. Testosterone is used as a parameter for determining a steroid as an anabolic or androgen. Steroide, bei denen die androgene Wirkung in Bezug auf Testosteron ist reduziert sind definiert als "anabole Steroide", und diejenigen, wo die Androgene Qualitäten sind höher als „androgene Steroide“.
Since both anabolics and androgens have a common ancestor – testosterone and have a similar mechanism of action on the body, in this book they are considered as a single class of drugs – anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS).
It is not possible to consider all biochemical processes that occur in the body when taking AAS in the framework of this book. Let us dwell only on those that are most interesting for athletes and relate mainly to the effects of AAS on the muscle cell.
Steroide werden intramuskulär oder oral eingenommen. Bei der Injektion gelangt die Substanz direkt in das Blut Form einer Tablette geht es durch den Magen-Darm-Trakt zum Leber, wo es entweder ganz oder teilweise zusammenbricht oder eintritt the blood in its original state. The genommenes Steroid gelangt in Form zahlreicher Steroidmoleküle ins Blut that travel through the bloodstream throughout the body. Each steroid molecule carries information that it must transmit to certain cells of the body. The cells intended for this have different types of receptors on their outer membrane. One of them is steroid receptors, which are found in large quantities in muscle cells. Steroid receptors and steroid molecules of the same size and shape. And approach each other, like a “key to the lock.” The steroid receptor accepts the steroid molecule, passing by all other types of molecules. The same thing happens with other types of receptors that do not perceive steroid molecules, because intended only for “their” molecules. Wenn der Steroidrezeptor und das Steroidmolekül zu einem kombiniert werden Komplex ist das Molekül in der Lage, Informationen an die zu übertragen muscle cell. It should be noted that Die meisten Steroidmoleküle befinden sich in einem gebundenen Zustand im Blut und bilden sich Verbindungen mit Sexualhormon-bindendem Globulin: 98% des Steroids Moleküle im Blut sind gebunden und nur 1-2% sind frei state. The latter relate specifically to steroid molecules capable of forming a steroid-receptor complex. Bound steroid molecules are a passive part, because in this state, the muscle cell will not perceive them. For the sake of accuracy I’ll say that this percentage fluctuates.
Das gebildeter Steroid-Rezeptor-Komplex ist auf den Zellkern gerichtet, wo es an bestimmte Segmente auf Segmenten des DNA-Kerns gebunden ist acids. Dasn transcription follows, i.e. DNA is imprinted. Das resulting ribonucleic acid leaves the cell nucleus and in the Das Zytoplasma ist an die RNA gebunden, die sich hier befindet, wo sich das Protein befindet synthesis is increased by translation. In combination with intense strength training, this leads to a transverse increase in muscle cells (muscle hypertrophy).
Enhanced protein synthesis is seen as the main effect of steroids on the muscle cell, while steroid molecules carry other important information for athletes. Many things speak in favor of the fact that steroids also have a strong anti-catabolic effect. Thanks to them, the percentage of protein that breaks down in the muscle cell is reduced. In addition, steroid molecules block cortisol receptors located on the muscle cell membrane. And the strong catabolic hormone cortisol produced by the body loses its activity.
Weitere Vorteile von Steroiden
Another advantage of steroids is that they increase the synthesis of creatine phosphate (CF) in the muscle cell. CF plays a crucial role in the restoration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
ATP is the basis of all muscle movements, because is a combustible material necessary for the cell to do the job. ATP accumulates in the muscle cell and, if necessary, turns into adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This process releases energy that allows the muscle cell to work. For the reverse process of ADP in ATP, CF is also needed. The more it is, the faster this restoration is and the more ATP is at the disposal of the muscle cell. In practice, this means that the muscle becomes stronger, but no more. Those who have already tried the steroid Oxandrolone once know that this drug primarily affects muscle strength. The fact is that it causes increased synthesis of CF in the muscle cell.
Another factor that is useful for athletes is that steroids accumulate carbohydrates in the muscle cell in the form of glycogen. This process goes along with increased accumulation of fluid, which together with an increase in muscle volume entails an improvement in their endurance.
Steroide reduzieren die Produktion von endogenem Insulin, wie
Eine Muskelzelle kann Nährstoffe (Kohlenhydrate in Form von
Glykogen und Protein in Form von Aminosäuren) mit ihrer Aufnahme weniger
dependent on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, as
Insulin zusammen mit seiner Qualität als starkes anaboles Hormon konvertiert
Glukose in Glycerin und letztendlich in Triglyceride, was führt
to the growth of fat cells. Those who
Steroide mindestens einmal verwendet haben, wissen, dass während des Trainings in der
Beteiligte Muskeln gibt es einen "Pump-Effekt", den Profis den nennen
“steroid pump.” The fact is that steroids increase blood volume and the number of red blood cells in it. Muscles become more voluminous. Along with these benefits, increased blood flow to the muscle cell increases the delivery of nutrients to it. The increased supply of oxygen to the body associated with this phenomenon is often used by middle and short distance runners.
Nachdem der Steroid-Rezeptor-Komplex seinen Zweck in der nucleus of the cell, the steroid molecule returns to the bloodstream and, for some time, again becomes suitable for the function described above, or turns into an inactive molecule and, ultimately, is excreted from the body along with urine.
Not all steroid molecules in the blood immediately bind to the globulin-binding sex hormones or are in a free, active state. Some of them are immediately used by the body in the process of metabolism and removed from it. Another part can be converted by the body into female sex hormones – estrogens. This phenomenon is called aromatization and at first glance seems to be unthinkable. Aber wenn Sie sich die Struktur des männlichen Sexualhormons ansehen - Testosteron - und das weibliche - Östradiol - näher, es fällt auf, dass they are very similar. The body easily copes with the task of producing the necessary structural changes in the molecule through enzymes.
Einige Steroidmoleküle werden wie die exogenen Teile von Testosteron in Dihydrotestosteron (DHT) umgewandelt. Es hat eine größere chemische Affinität zu Muskelzellrezeptoren als Testosteron selbst, und deshalb glauben einige Experten, dass Dihydrotestosteron ist im Vergleich zu beiden ein stärkeres Hormon männliche und weibliche Sexualhormone, während es auch ein hohes Bindungspotential hat in against receptors of the sebaceous glands and their hair follicles. Interestingly, DHT cannot be converted to estrogen.
Letztendlich werden alle diese Moleküle nach einer Weile im Urin ausgeschieden. Das Problem der Steroidwirksamkeit sollte ebenfalls angesprochen werden.
Some AAS, being in the blood, have an increased ability to bind to the desired receptors. The fact is that they can be in free form longer, and therefore have great chances to meet target receptor zones. Such drugs as Deca, Dianabol, Cypionate, Sustanon-250 and Parabolan are highly capable of finding the necessary receptors in the body of a wide variety of users, as they have a larger percentage of free molecules than others.
With all this, much depends on the characteristics of the organism of a particular user. Some athletes have an extremely large number of free receptors, which in turn radically enhances the anabolic effect. Dies erklärt die Tatsache, dass einige Gewichtheber kleine Dosen von nehmen Steroide erhöhen kontinuierlich ihre Wirksamkeit. Unter Sportlern gibt es Personen mit einer geringen Anzahl von Rezeptoren In Muskelzellen wird in Verbindung damit nur die stärkste AAS be effective for them. Very often, these users take high doses from a mixture of different steroids without any visible effect.
Some athletes have active receptor sites in areas where they would rather not be. For example, for some users, certain drugs cause acne, while for others, the same drugs in the same doses do not cause any reaction of the body. This also explains the fact that in some athletes, even with high doses of testosterone, there is no increase in the mammary glands, and in other users, any steroids, even Kinder, cause gynecomastia. It can be assumed that some individuals have a very large number of estrogen receptors in their breast tissue, while others have a very small number. There is nothing to be done with your individual number of receptors and their preferred location – this is your genetic trait.
In addition to the genetic factor, the age-related activity of receptors seems to be an important point. There is evidence that receptors are most active in young people under the age of 20 years. Of course, this is a generalization, but such, at least, are the trends. Steroids at this age are better absorbed and give maximum results. Somit können Vertreter dieser Altersgruppe kleine Dosen über a einnehmen längere Zeit und erzielen größere Leistungssteigerungen als ältere Menschen.
Mehr oder weniger haben verstanden den Wirkungsmechanismus von AAS, gehen wir nun direkt zu die Beschreibung der Medikamente dieser Gruppe.